Hi everyone welcome to our program doctor and today my topic is hypertension hypertension or high blood pressure also known as arterial blood pressure is a chronic condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated and the blood pressure is summarized by two measurements systolic and diastolic depends on whether the heart muscle is contracting that

Is restored or relaxed between beats that is diastole and this equals the maximum and minimum blood pressure respectively normal blood pressure and presley within the range of 100 to 140 mm hg systolic and 60 to 90 mmhg diastolic you high blood pressure is said to be present if the blood pressure is yet or above 140 x 90mm fixity if hypertension is not fitted

Properly it puts strain on the heart which leads to hypertensive heart disease or coronary artery disease and hypertension is also a major risk factor for stroke and inner rhythms of the arteries that is iotic in tourism peripheral artery diseases and also chronic renal diseases and hypertension is mainly transferred as primary or essential hypertension secondary

Hypertension malignant or accelerated hypertension pregnancy-induced hypertension and hypertension in children miss coming to the signs and symptoms of hypertension people with hypertension mainly complaints headache and lightheadedness what they go till he does altered vision or fainting episodes in primary or national hypertension there is a high blood pressure

With no obvious underlying medical costs which is same in ninety to ninety-five percent of the cases and secondary hypertension is caused by the other conditions that affects kidneys author is thought or endocrine system this is the same in five to ten percent of the cases coming to the management or accelerated hypertension in which there is a severely elevated

Blood pressure the systolic greater than 180 mm hg and i slowly greater than 110 mm fidgety this condition is also known as hypertensive crisis on hypertensive emergency and these high levels of blood pressure leads to higher risk of complications and there is a possibility of hypertensive encephalopathy hardly by the brain swelling and dysfunction characterized

By headache and altered consciousness and there is a retinal fabuleux edema under hemorrhages and x-rays are seen in the eye and chest pain may indicate hot amateru damage and if there is a breathlessness of an expectation of red states modem on characteristic signs of pulmonary edema and there is a acute renal disease and destruction of the blood cells also see

Let’s come into the if pregnancy-induced hypertension in a to ten percent of the turkey please this condition may occur if there is a true blood pressure measurements six hours apart or later than 140 x 90mm fidgety he is considered as the diagnosis of hypertension in pregnancy most women with hypertension in pregnancy how pre i distinct primary hypertension but high

Blood pressure in pregnancy may be the first sign of preeclampsia we need a serious condition of second half of the pregnancy and pure barium preeclampsia is characterized by high blood pressure and also paddles of the protein in the unit it occurs in about five percent of the pregnancies and also this is responsible for sixteen percent of madden 11 and preeclampsia

Also doubles the risk of perinatal mortality the most common symptoms of preeclampsia are nausea vomiting epigastric pain headache and also visual disturbances preeclampsia yes occasionally progress to life-threatening serious condition is called eclampsia which is a hypertensive emergency and have several serious complications such as vision loss cerebral edema

Caesars renal failure pulmonary edema and disseminated intravascular coagulation nest coming to the hypertension in children in neonates and infants the symptoms are caesars irritability lack of energy and difficulty breathing and in water infants and children the symptoms of headache fatigue player division no splits and facial paralysis coming to the car dissolve

Hypertension primary hypertension is most common form and the lifestyle factors which can lowers the literature include reduced dietary salt intake increase your consumption of fruits and low-fat products exercises weight loss and also reduced on k’hal intake this coming to the secondary hypertension secondary hypertension results from a identifiable cause renal

Disease is the most common cause of the secondary hypertension and the endocranial conditions which cause secondary hypertension or cushing’s syndrome hyperthyroidism hypothyroidism hyperparathyroidism konsa disease and acromegaly next coming to the other causes of secondary hypertension these are obesity pregnancy for attention of iota and sleep apnea etcetera

Coming to the pathophysiology of hypertension you testimonies diagnosis of hypertension and diagnosis is based on the persistent high blood pressure and this requires three separate speak more manual metal measurements h1 monthly intervals after that physician will identify the underlying cause based on risk factors and other symptoms if present and laboratory

Tests can also be performed to identify the possible cause of secondary hypertension and additional tests for diabetes and high cholesterol levels also performed because these conditions are additional risk factors for the development of heart disease and also corollary artery diseases and also we have to perform the serum creatinine test for the renal disease and

Electrocardiogram testing for the evidence of heart disease coming to the prevention of hypertension effective lifestyle modification may lower the blood pressure how to maintain normal body weight for adults body mass index is 20 to 25 kg per meter square and reduce the sodium intake birthday is less than 100 millimoles and reduced the alcohol intake and increase

The consumption of fruit and high fiber content coming to the treatment of hypertension there are several drugs are available to treat the hypertension the important antihypertensive drugs are diuretics different classes of diuretics loop diuretics examples furosemide bumetanide then thiazide diuretics examples chloro thiazide and hydrochlorothiazide hi said like

The earrings these are mottola zone floor querido then potassium-sparing diuretics these are able oh right spironolactone coming to the other class of antihypertensive drugs a dinner jake receptor antibodies these are beautiful alpha blockers and mixed alpha and beta blockers examples for the beta blockers eaten alone metoprolol akron at all you know examples for

Alpha blockers reducing terazosin and mixed alpha and beta blockers who’s in dalal lab it alone next one is benzodiazepines and these drugs slower different pressure by acting at the eagerness of the gaba that is gamma amino butyric acid which is a receptor in the brain thus slowing down neurotransmission and dilating read pages just coming to the calcium channel

Blockers examples are amlodipine verapamil nimodipine and phenotypic and other antihypertensive drugs are radiant inhibitors and ac e inhibitors that is angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors then alpha-2 agonist these are methyldopa clonidine and absurdity coming to the drug combination therapy the majority of people requires more than one drug to control their

Hypertension in those with systolic blood pressure is more than 160 mm you to see a diastolic blood pressure is more than 100 mhz so these are the important points regarding hypertension i hope you learned something today and i hope you enjoyed this program thanks for watching see you the next episode with another till then take care

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